Introduction to Clinical HIV and the Initial Evaluation
- Describe the global epidemiology of HIV and its history
- Conduct an initial history and physical of a newly diagnosed HIV-infected patient.
- Stage patients’ HIV disease severity based on both CDC and WHO HIV classifications.
- Explain the challenges of delivering HIV care in resource-limited settings and the current strategies for meeting these challenges.
HIV Testing and Prevention
- Answer the question “Who needs an HIV test”: Describe strategies for testing and testing requirements for different populations.
- Outline the strategies to reduce secondary HIV transmission, starting with the infected patient.
- Recognize the indications for post-exposure prophylaxis for both occupational and sexual HIV exposures and review PEP delivery.
- Describe the role of pre-exposure prophylaxis and identify the patients most likely to benefit from PrEP and review PrEP delivery.
Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
- Describe the goals of antiretroviral therapy
- Discuss key considerations related to the timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation
- List the classes of antiretroviral drugs and identify their distinguishing features, including key drug-drug interactions and potential adverse effects
- Identify recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens, as well as the pros/cons of different regimens
- Describe the adverse effects of antiretroviral agents, both common and severe
- Discuss the most common underlying causes of treatment failure
- Describe the evaluation and management of treatment failure, including how the approach may differ based on the availability of HIV resistance testing
- Outline the most common HIV resistance mutations and their implications for selecting an appropriate treatment regimen
- Summarize the epidemiology and significance of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among PLHIV
- Describe the benefits and current approaches to integrating NCD care into routine HIV services
- Describe the epidemiology of TB and the epidemiologic relationship between HIV and TB
- Describe the pathogenesis of TB in PLHIV, clinical manifestations, and algorithms for screening and diagnosis
- Explain the principles of TB treatment for PLHIV
- Outline modalities for TB prevention among PLHIV
- Explain LTBI diagnosis and treatment among PLHIV
Opportunistic Infectious (OI)
- Describe the approach to diagnosis and management of OIs affecting the CNS
- Review the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of common non-CNS OIs
- Discuss the benefits of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and the rationale for its expanded role in resource-limited settings
- Describe the significance of IRIS, including key diagnostic and management principles
- Review the epidemiology and clinical features of both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining HIV-associated malignancies
- Describe key factors that influence cancer treatment outcomes among PLHIV
- Identify common clinical presentations and themes in HIV-related skin disease
- Recognize important drug hypersensitivity syndromes that may occur more commonly in PLHIV
- Contrast the natural history and manifestations of HIV in infants and children versus that in adults
- Explain key principles in the diagnosis and management of HIV infection in infants and children
- Discuss approaches to preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), as well as the progress and challenges of PMTCT efforts globally
- Describe the unique challenges, considerations, and strategies in the management of HIV in adolescents and how adolescents’ needs differ from those of pediatric or adult patients.
- Describe how sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromes can present in persons living with HIV and review STI etiologies.
- Differentiate between the syndromic versus etiologic approach to management of STIs in HIV-infected patients.
- Explain the significance of common psychosocial barriers experienced by PLHIV, including stigma.
- Discuss the role of behavioral and psychosocial support interventions for improving HIV outcomes.
- Identify and describe the epidemiology of mental health conditions that are common among PLHIV.
- Appreciate the unique issues central to caring for an HIV-infected woman. (Women)
- Describe key (high-risk) populations and understand their unique challenges and needs (CSW, MSM, Transgender, PWID)